How does UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply)work?

how does ups work

How does UPS work? A UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) work, is simple and one of the most important investments you can make for your home’s electronic equipment to keep computers and other electronic equipment safe when there is a loss and when there is a significant reduction, in the main power supply.

The Main Use of UPS is for Computers to keep the motherboard and other parts of the computer to keep it safe.

Three types of static UPS

All UPS, regardless of the technology involved, perform the same fundamental task, to protect any equipment connected to it from a total blackout.

  • Offline Voltage and Frequency-Dependent (VFD)
  • Line-Interactive or Voltage Independent (VI)
  • voltage and Frequency Independent (VFI)

Types of UPS topologies of UPS

Typically, there are three key types of topologies of UPS, each with varying levels of mains protection.

File:Line-Interactive UPS Diagram(2).PNG - Wikimedia Commons
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Offline Voltage and Frequency-Dependent (VFD)UPS

The most basic and cheapest UPS is an Offline Voltage and Frequency-Dependent (VFD). It is An offline UPS is the most cost-effective way of providing protection against power outages. In an offline UPS design, the load constantly supplied by the primary power source, while in normal operation, internal batteries charged and ready for use. Only when a blackout occurs does the UPS choose the battery to provide power to the load. This switching from the mains supply to the battery is typically less than 25 milliseconds. Although this sounds a very shortened period, it is enough of a break in power for sensitive modern equipment to notice. Because of its design, an offline UPS does not protect against other mains-borne disturbances. Therefore, this type should only use for non-critical equipment.

Line-Interactive or Voltage Independent (VI) UPS

Line-Interactive or Voltage Independent (VI) UPS. The line interactive-design of the UPS works largely the same as an offline but with the addition of an automatic voltage stabilizer or AVS. With the AVS connected to the load, it can provide protection against voltage instability by increasing or decreasing the voltage if the primary supply falls out of tolerance.

The switchover period to batteries that exist in this design. However, it typically reduced to around 5 milliseconds. Line-interactive systems, with their greater power protection features and their larger power capacities, are well-suited and often used for larger non-critical loads such as telephone switches, servers, and smaller motor applications.

voltage and Frequency Independent (VFI) UPS

Now for the ultimate in power protection and availability. Online UPS sometimes referred to as double conversion voltage and Frequency Independent (VFI). Different in design to the offline and line-interactive varieties, the load in an online UPS not connected directly to the primary supply. The primary power enters the UPS and travels through a rectifier that converts the power from AC to DC. then it transfers through an inverter to convert back from DC to AC, before powering the load. If a main power failure or disturbance occurs, there is no break in power while the system switches over.

The rectifier switches off and allows the inverter to take power from the battery set automatically. Batteries in an online UPS always connected to the inverter ready for any power loss. Because of the conversion to DC power, any disturbances on the incoming supplier stopped in their tracks. Online UPSs can typically range from 700 VA to multi-MVA systems. This coupled with their total power protection makes them the obvious choice for all critical loads. 

How does UPS work?

Three key parts are the most important part of UPS first is transformers. The transformer is followed by a printed circuit board that is PCB. If you progress beyond PCB, there is a rechargeable battery And then there is ON-OFF Switch, there are now two-three LED indicators.

When we give single-phase power in UPS, the output UPS we give it to the PC. the output from the UPS gets filter and there are no fluctuations of voltage. The voltage fluctuates when directly give to single-phase supply to PC or any other electronic device. As it is 230 volts now, sometimes it will become 250volts, sometimes it will become 180 volts. To control the fluctuation of voltage install UPS, you can also use a stabilizer, but the UPS is safer, because it can also get the battery back-up in it, they can also get indicator and beep stuff and keep electronic equipment safe when power loss.

When we give an input of 240v to the UPS, its power goes to a transformer, and the transformer divided it into two places. One goes to the Battery to charged, but it goes from the PCB. the current is coming is AC and battery needs DC to charged. The PCB convert AC to DC and then it will charge the battery. The other one which powered the PCB to run PCB. the power of the PCB, that is the filter we get from the output of UPS.

The step-down transformer generating voltage of 12volts for the battery to charged and Filter your 230 volts and send it forward. Then goes to the PCB and the PCB programme in a such a way that whatever power setting it sets, 230 voltage or 240 Voltage it will remain stable And gets beep sound immediately when there is low voltage, and you know there is power loss.

The important three works of PCB. One is to control the voltage that is coming from fluctuations. The second work is of charger which charges the battery and the third work is the inverter which means taking 12 volts DC out of the battery and then give 230 or 240 volts AC.

Whenever the power fluctuates or disconnects ,the UPS Starts in backup mode by taking power from the battery and by converting it to 240 volts AC which is the 12 volts from the battery.

My opinion

To save electronics items, install UPS to keep the electronic equipments safe, because UPS is not that costly to buy a ups if anything happens to your electronic equipments maintenance cost is more than the UPS.

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